Required measures for transport stream usage in error prone environments. Why is re-multiplexing of transport streams needed and what does that mean for delays and buffering. Commercial breaks in transport stream based broadcast, caused time base discontinuities and associated buffering issues. Statistical multiplexing in broadcast applications. The role of padding and stuffing. The importance of random access and parsing convenience. Options to carry private data. Support of copyright and copy control. Trick mode operation. Issues with single program transport streams and partial transport streams. Carriage of a program stream in a transport stream, the use of PES streams and room created for future extensions.